Revenue Limits: Proposition 13 (1978), Proposition 218 (1996) and Proposition 26 (2010)
Academic discipline studying businesses and investments
Finance is the study of money and how it is used. Specifically, it deals with the questions of how an individual, company or government acquires the money needed – called capital in the company context – and how they then spend or invest that money.
Core financial theories can largely be divided into the following categories: financial economics, mathematical finance and valuation.
In the context of institutions, finance is often split into the following major categories: investment management, corporate finance, personal finance and public finance.
At the same time, finance is about the overall “system”
– i.e. the financial markets that allow the flow of money, via investments and other financial instruments, between and within these areas;
this “flow” is facilitated by the financial services sector.
A major focus within finance is
(Bloomberg) — The global airline industry has never had it so bad. Not even after the 9/11 terrorist attacks.Airlines could lose a quarter of a trillion dollars in revenue this year, according to the International Air Transport Association, as travel comes to a standstill with countries locked down to fight the coronavirus. Most carriers will go bankrupt by the end of May if they can’t find support, Sydney-based CAPA Centre for Aviation said last week.“In this very difficult period, it will only be the survival of the fittest” – Qatar Airways CEO Akbar Al BakerWhich airlines are most at risk? Like the virus, the crisis is indiscriminate, affecting everyone from budget operators to national flag carriers. Aircraft manufacturers and their suppliers also are under immense pressure, with Boeing Co. calling for billions of dollars in state support and Airbus SE extending credit lines and canceling its dividend.Using the
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management, primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent or uncertain loss.
An entity which provides insurance is known as an insurer, insurance company, insurance carrier or underwriter. A person or entity who buys insurance is known as an insured or as a policyholder. The insurance transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively small loss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer’s promise to compensate the insured in the event of a covered loss. The loss may or may not be financial, but it must be reducible to financial terms, and usually involves something in which the insured has an insurable interest established by ownership, possession, or pre-existing relationship.
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